A song, now, in honour of one that is my good friend; a song about a near kinsman of mine, and the vineyard that he had. This friend, that I love well, had a vineyard in a corner of his ground, all fruitfulness. 2 He fenced it in, and cleared it of stones, and planted a choice vine there; built a tower, too, in the middle, and set up a wine-press in it. Then he waited for grapes to grow on it, and it bore wild grapes instead. 3 And now, citizens of Jerusalem, and all you men of Juda, I call upon you to give award between my vineyard and me. 4 What more could I have done for it? What say you of the wild grapes it bore, instead of the grapes I looked for? 5 Let me tell you, then, what I mean to do to this vineyard of mine. I mean to rob it of its hedge, so that all can plunder it, to break down its wall, so that it will be trodden under foot. 6 I mean to make waste-land of it; no more pruning and digging; only briars and thorns will grow there, and I will forbid the clouds to water it. 7 Alas, it is the house of Israel that the Lord called his vineyard; the men of Juda are the plot he loved so. He looked to find right reason there, and all was treason; to find plain dealing, and he heard only the plaint of the oppressed. Is 5:1-7
Listen to another parable. There was a rich man who planted a vineyard; he walled it in, and dug a wine-press and built a tower in it, and then let it out to some vine-dressers, while he went on his travels. 34 When vintage-time drew near, he sent his own servants on an errand to the vine-dressers, to claim its revenues. 35 Whereupon the vine-dressers laid hands upon his servants; one they beat, one they killed outright, one they stoned. 36 And he sent other servants on a second errand, more than he had sent at first, but they were used no better. 37 After that, he sent his own son to them; They will have reverence, he said, for my son. 38 But when the vine-dressers found his son coming to them, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and seize upon the inheritance. 39 And they laid hands on him, thrust him out from the vineyard, and killed him. 40 And now, what will the owner of the vineyard do to those vine-dressers when he returns? 41 They said, He will bring those wretches to a wretched end, and will let out the vineyard to other vine-dressers, who will pay him his due when the season comes. 42 And Jesus said to them, Have you never read those words in the scriptures, The very stone which the builders rejected has become the chief stone at the corner; this is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? 43 I tell you, then, that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and given to a people which yields the revenues that belong to it.Mt 21:33-43
Do you see what these vineyards represent? Both Isiah and Jesus, when they spoke of a vineyard, were refering to the Kingdom of God established here on earth. The Jews in the Old testament failed at tending the Kingdom and Isiah predicted that they would fall. Jesus likewise described a Kingdom in which the workers rebeled against the owner, God. But instead of destroying the workers in the Kingdom, the rebellious Jews would have a chance at repentence. The owner, God, would send His own son, who the Jews would kill. The Kingdom will be given to the Gentiles as retribution.